mmhelloworld

main = println "Hello World!"

Introducing Idris on the JVM and an Idris Android example

Idris on the JVM! Yes, a dependently typed language on the JVM! I have been working on a JVM bytecode backend for Idris for the past few months and it is now at a point that we can even write Android programs with Idris without having to write a single line of Java. In this post, we will see how Idris works on the JVM and an example Android program written in Idris.

Hello World

hellworld.idr
1
2
3
4
module Main

main : IO ()
main = printLn "Hello World"
Compile:
1
$ idrisjvm helloworld.idr -o target

Here idrisjvm is just a wrapper around Idris command itself with few default options: idris --codegen jvm -p idrisjvmruntime. Dependencies are provided as Idris packages, not as Java dependencies like jar or class files. The overall process is that the compiler reads Idris files and converts them into Idris bytecode files (*.ibc) and the JVM bytecode generator takes the ibc files and converts them into JVM bytecode class files directly. It is only when we run a Java class, we have to provide Java dependency jars. The output option -o represents a directory where the Java class files will be created.

Run:
1
2
$ java -cp target:/path/to/idris-jvm-runtime-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar main.Main
"Hello World"

And the output folder contains,

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
$ tree target
target
├── Decidable
│   └── Equality.class
├── main
│   └── Main.class
└── Prelude
    ├── Basics.class
    ├── Bool.class
    ├── Chars.class
    ├── Interfaces.class
    ├── Show.class
    └── Strings.class

Why do we have all these classes? We only compiled Main module! This is because Idris performs whole program analysis/compilation and code generator generates bytecode for all the modules that are relevant for the result produced by the main program.

How does Idris JVM handle tail calls?

Idris JVM eliminates self-recursion with JVM GOTO and uses trampolines for other tail calls. Let’s look at the following examples.

self-recursion example
selfrecursion.idr
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
module Main

import IdrisJvm.IO

sum : Nat -> Nat
sum n = go 0 n where
  go : Nat -> Nat -> Nat
  go acc Z = acc
  go acc n@(S k) = go (acc + n) k

main : JVM_IO ()
main = printLn (sum 50000)

This program would work just fine without blowing up the stack as it will be compiled down to a loop that uses JVM’s GOTO instruction. Here is the relevant section from bytecode:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
$ javap -c -cp target:/path/to/idris-jvm-runtime-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar main.Main

  public static java.lang.Object sum$whr$go$colon$0(java.lang.Object, java.lang.Object, java.lang.Object);
    Code:
       0: aconst_null
       1: astore        7
       3: aconst_null
       4: astore_3
       5: aconst_null
       6: astore        4
       8: aconst_null
       9: astore        5
      11: aconst_null
      12: astore        6
      14: iconst_1
      15: istore        8
      17: iload         8
      19: ifeq          130
      22: aload_2
      23: new           #80                 // class java/math/BigInteger
      26: dup
      27: ldc           #82                 // String 0
      29: invokespecial #85                 // Method java/math/BigInteger."<init>":(Ljava/lang/String;)V
      32: invokestatic  #333                // Method mmhelloworld/idrisjvmruntime/Util.equals:(Ljava/lang/Object;Ljava/lang/Object;)Z
      35: ifeq          47
      38: aload_1
      39: astore        7
      41: iconst_0
      42: istore        8
      44: goto          127
      47: new           #80                 // class java/math/BigInteger
      50: dup
      51: ldc_w         #335                // String 1
      54: invokespecial #85                 // Method java/math/BigInteger."<init>":(Ljava/lang/String;)V
      57: astore_3
      58: aload_2
      59: invokestatic  #103                // Method mmhelloworld/idrisjvmruntime/Util.asBigInt:(Ljava/lang/Object;)Ljava/math/BigInteger;
      62: aload_3
      63: invokestatic  #103                // Method mmhelloworld/idrisjvmruntime/Util.asBigInt:(Ljava/lang/Object;)Ljava/math/BigInteger;
      66: invokevirtual #338                // Method java/math/BigInteger.subtract:(Ljava/math/BigInteger;)Ljava/math/BigInteger;
      69: astore_3
      70: new           #80                 // class java/math/BigInteger
      73: dup
      74: ldc_w         #335                // String 1
      77: invokespecial #85                 // Method java/math/BigInteger."<init>":(Ljava/lang/String;)V
      80: astore        4
      82: aload_3
      83: invokestatic  #103                // Method mmhelloworld/idrisjvmruntime/Util.asBigInt:(Ljava/lang/Object;)Ljava/math/BigInteger;
      86: aload         4
      88: invokestatic  #103                // Method mmhelloworld/idrisjvmruntime/Util.asBigInt:(Ljava/lang/Object;)Ljava/math/BigInteger;
      91: invokevirtual #107                // Method java/math/BigInteger.add:(Ljava/math/BigInteger;)Ljava/math/BigInteger;
      94: astore        4
      96: iconst_0
      97: invokestatic  #41                 // Method java/lang/Integer.valueOf:(I)Ljava/lang/Integer;
     100: astore        5
     102: aload_1
     103: invokestatic  #103                // Method mmhelloworld/idrisjvmruntime/Util.asBigInt:(Ljava/lang/Object;)Ljava/math/BigInteger;
     106: aload         4
     108: invokestatic  #103                // Method mmhelloworld/idrisjvmruntime/Util.asBigInt:(Ljava/lang/Object;)Ljava/math/BigInteger;
     111: invokevirtual #107                // Method java/math/BigInteger.add:(Ljava/math/BigInteger;)Ljava/math/BigInteger;
     114: astore        6
     116: aload         5
     118: astore_0
     119: aload         6
     121: astore_1
     122: aload_3
     123: astore_2
     124: goto          127
     127: goto          17
     130: aload         7
     132: areturn

The third line from the last is the GOTO instruction that transfers the control back to the top of function instead of actually calling the function.

Mutual recursion example:
mutualrecursion.idr
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
module Main

mutual
  evenT : Nat -> IO Bool
  evenT Z = pure True
  evenT (S k) = oddT k

  oddT : Nat -> IO Bool
  oddT Z = pure False
  oddT (S k) = evenT k

main : IO ()
main = printLn !(evenT 9999)

The above code also would work fine without killing the stack. Mutual recursion is handled using trampolines and the tail calls are delayed and compiled down to Java 8 lambdas. As the bytecode for this is bit long, here is the decompiled bytecode for the evenT function:

Decompiled bytecode for evenT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
public static Object evenT(Object var0) {
    Object var4 = null;
    Integer var1 = null;
    Integer var2 = null;
    Object[] var3 = null;
    if(Util.equals(var0, new BigInteger("0"))) {
        var1 = Integer.valueOf(0);
        var2 = Integer.valueOf(0);
        var3 = new Object[]{Integer.valueOf(1)};
        var4 = new Object[]{Integer.valueOf(65648), var1, var2, var3};
    } else {
        BigInteger var5 = new BigInteger("1");
        var5 = Util.asBigInt(var0).subtract(Util.asBigInt(var5));
        var4 = Runtime.thunk((var0) -> {
            return oddT(var0[0]);
        }, new Object[]{var5});
    }

    return var4;
}

As we can see from the decompiled output above, the oddT call is not performed on the same call stack but a thunk wrapping the function call is returned using lambda (which is compiled down to JVM’s invokedynamic instruction).

Here is the relevant bit from bytecode for those who are interested:

bytecode for evenT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
    76: new           #61                 // class java/math/BigInteger
    79: dup
    80: ldc           #75                 // String 1
    82: invokespecial #66                 // Method java/math/BigInteger."<init>":(Ljava/lang/String;)V
    85: astore_1
    86: aload_0
    87: invokestatic  #79                 // Method mmhelloworld/idrisjvmruntime/Util.asBigInt:(Ljava/lang/Object;)
Ljava/math/BigInteger;
    90: aload_1
    91: invokestatic  #79                 // Method mmhelloworld/idrisjvmruntime/Util.asBigInt:(Ljava/lang/Object;)
Ljava/math/BigInteger;
    94: invokevirtual #83                 // Method java/math/BigInteger.subtract:(Ljava/math/BigInteger;)Ljava/math/BigInteger;
    97: astore_1
    98: invokedynamic #88,  0             // InvokeDynamic #1:apply:()Lmmhelloworld/idrisjvmruntime/Function;
   103: iconst_1
   104: anewarray     #4                  // class java/lang/Object
   107: dup
   108: iconst_0
   109: aload_1
   110: aastore
   111: invokestatic  #58                 // Method mmhelloworld/idrisjvmruntime/Runtime.thunk:(Lmmhelloworld/idrisjvmruntime/Function;[Ljava/lang/Object;)Lmmhelloworld/idrisjvmruntime/Thunk;
   114: astore        4
   116: goto          119
   119: aload         4
   121: areturn

Java interoperability: Calling Java from Idris and calling Idris from Java

Idris JVM supports calling Java static methods, instance methods, constructors and also accessing static and instance fields from Idris. At the moment, except for Java arrays, all the Java types can be constructed from Idris and passed to Java methods. Support for handling nulls and exceptions is currently in progress and will soon be available. (Update 01/10/2017: We can now use Maybe type to avoid Java nulls in Idris code)

To use Idris functions from Java, Idris JVM supports exporting Idris functions as static methods, instance methods, constructors of an exported Java class. The exported class can also extend a Java class or implement interfaces with Idris functions.

To demonstrate these features, let’s create an Android application In Idris.

An Android application in Idris

idrisandroid.idr
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
module Main

import IdrisJvm.IO
import Java.Lang

pythag : Int -> List (Int, Int, Int)
pythag max = [(x, y, z) | z <- [1..max], y <- [1..z], x <- [1..y],
                          x * x + y * y == z * z]

IdrisAndroidActivity : Type
IdrisAndroidActivity = JVM_Native $ Class "hello/IdrisAndroidActivity"

Bundle : Type
Bundle = JVM_Native $ Class "android/os/Bundle"

Context : Type
Context = JVM_Native $ Class "android/content/Context"

View : Type
View = JVM_Native $ Class "android/view/View"

TextView : Type
TextView = JVM_Native $ Class "android/widget/TextView"

Inherits View TextView where {}

CharSequence : Type
CharSequence = JVM_Native $ Class "java/lang/CharSequence"

Inherits CharSequence String where {}

superOnCreate : IdrisAndroidActivity -> Bundle -> JVM_IO ()
superOnCreate = invokeInstance "superOnCreate" (IdrisAndroidActivity -> Bundle -> JVM_IO ())

getApplicationContext : IdrisAndroidActivity -> JVM_IO Context
getApplicationContext = invokeInstance "getApplicationContext" (IdrisAndroidActivity -> JVM_IO Context)

newTextView : Context -> JVM_IO TextView
newTextView = FFI.new (Context -> JVM_IO TextView)

setText : Inherits CharSequence charSequence => TextView -> charSequence -> JVM_IO ()
setText this text = invokeInstance "setText" (TextView -> CharSequence -> JVM_IO ()) this (believe_me text)

setContentView : Inherits View view => IdrisAndroidActivity -> view -> JVM_IO ()
setContentView this view = invokeInstance "setContentView" (IdrisAndroidActivity -> View -> JVM_IO ()) this (believe_me view)

onCreate : IdrisAndroidActivity -> Bundle -> JVM_IO ()
onCreate this bundle = do
  superOnCreate this bundle
  context <- getApplicationContext this
  textView <- newTextView context
  setText textView $ "Hello Android from Idris! pythag 50 is " ++ show (pythag 50)
  setContentView this textView

main : IO ()
main = pure ()

androidExport: FFI_Export FFI_JVM "hello/IdrisAndroidActivity extends android/support/v7/app/AppCompatActivity" []
androidExport =
  Fun superOnCreate (Super "onCreate") $
  Fun onCreate (ExportInstance "onCreate") $
  End

The above program demonstrates calling Java instance methods (setText for example) and constructors (newTextView).

It further demonstrates how to handle inheritance relationship when passing subclass instances to a parent class type. For example, function setContentView takes a View but we can pass a TextView as it is a subclass of View and we mention that to Idris via Inherits View TextView where {}.

It also demonstrates how we can create a Java class that extends another class and override methods with Idris functions. The last section androidExport creates a Java class named hello/IdrisAndroidActivity that extends android/support/v7/app/AppCompatActivity. The Java class also creates a wrapper method superOnCreate that just delegates to super.OnCreate and the class also overrides onCreate method with Idris’ onCreate function. The Java class can also implement one or more Java interfaces with something like,

1
hello/IdrisAndroidActivity extends android/support/v7/app/AppCompatActivity implements java/lang/Runnable, java/lang/Comparable

A module can have multiple exports so we can actually create multiple Java classes with Idris implementation functions from an Idris module.

We can compile this as usual,

idrisjvm idrisandroid.idr -o target

It would produce the following class files:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
$ tree target/
target/
├── Decidable
│   └── Equality.class
├── hello
│   └── IdrisAndroidActivity.class
├── main
│   ├── Main.class
│   └── Prelude.class
└── Prelude
    ├── Algebra.class
    ├── Applicative.class
    ├── Bool.class
    ├── Foldable.class
    ├── Interfaces.class
    ├── List.class
    ├── Monad.class
    ├── Show.class
    └── Strings.class
Deploying to Android:
  1. Create an android project using Android studio with Jack support for Java 8.
  2. Then package the classes compiled above along with idris-jvm-runtime-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar classes in a single jar and copy into an android project’s app/libs directory.
  3. Change the activity class name in android manifest file to the Idris exported class name hello.IdrisAndroidActivity.
  4. Then run ./gradlew installDebug from android project after starting an emulator or connected to an android device.
  5. Finally we should see our Idris code running on Android! It should look something like this:

Happy coding!

Comments